Frequently Asked Questions
General Vaccine Information
How do the COVID-19 vaccines work?
The Pfizer and Moderna vaccines use messenger RNA or mRNA, to trigger the immune system to produce protective antibodies and memory cells against the coronavirus. These are the first vaccines to use mRNA. It is important to note that neither of these vaccines uses the coronavirus, itself, and neither can cause COVID-19.
The Johnson & Johnson vaccine is a vector vaccine. That means it contains a weakened version of a virus that causes the common cold that is different than the coronavirus. The cold virus is modified to carry information about the coronavirus to the body. This vaccine causes the body to make a protein that is unique to the coronavirus. This prompts the immune system to produce protective antibodies against the coronavirus. Like the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines, this vaccine does not use the coronavirus, itself, and cannot cause COVID-19.
None of the vaccines affect a person’s DNA. They also do not cause coronavirus.
What ingredients are in the Pfizer vaccine?
- messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) – the main, active ingredient that elicits an immune response and the production of antibodies
- Lipids (including ((4-hydroxybutyl)azanediyl)bis(hexane-6,1-diyl)bis(2-hexyldecanoate), 2 [(polyethylene glycol)-2000]-N,N-ditetradecylacetamide, 1,2-Distearoyl-sn-glycero-3- phosphocholine, and cholesterol) – an outside coating or shell of fat that protects the mRNA from destruction as it is being stored, administered and delivered to cells
- Potassium chloride; monobasic potassium phosphate; sodium chloride (salt); dibasic sodium phosphate dehydrate – salts that are used to maintain proper levels of acidity (pH)
- Sucrose – a sugar that stabilizes the suspension
What ingredients are in the Moderna vaccine?
- messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA)- the main, active ingredient that elicits an immune response and the production of antibodies
- lipids (SM-102, polyethylene glycol [PEG] 2000 dimyristoyl glycerol [DMG],cholesterol, and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [DSPC])- an outside coating or shell of fat that protects the mRNA from destruction as it is being stored, administered and delivered to cells
- tromethamine, tromethamine hydrochloride, acetic acid, sodium acetate- used to maintain proper pH
- Sucrose – a sugar that stabilizes the suspension
What ingredients are in the Johnson & Johnson vaccine?
- Recombinant, replication-incompetent adenovirus type 26 expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein
- citric acid monohydrate
- trisodium citrate dihydrate
- 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HBCD)
- sodium chloride
How do vaccines protect our community?
How are the three vaccines different?
Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna are mRNA vaccines and Johnson & Johnson’s is a viral vector vaccine.
The Moderna and Pfizer vaccines use the same technology but contain slightly different mRNAs and different ingredients used to protect the mRNA, maintain the pH and stabilize the solution. Essentially, these two vaccines make a protein unique to COVID-19 that triggers your body into producing antibodies and T-lymphocytes (T-cells) to fight it. If you get infected in the future, those cells will remember and fight the virus.
The Johnson & Johnson vaccine is a viral vector which is a virus that has been altered so it does not cause illness but still makes your immune system build up specific defenses. This vaccine triggers the same result, but from a different angle. Examples of viral vector vaccines are the flu and measles vaccines.
Does it matter which vaccine I receive?
All the approved vaccines are safe and highly effective. The best vaccine is the vaccine you can get as soon as possible. However, only the Pfizer vaccine has been approved for use in individuals age 12 – 17. Vaccine clinics now publish which vaccine they are offering, so make sure to schedule at a clinic offering the Pfizer vaccine if you are scheduling for someone under 18.
We cannot compare the vaccines to each other directly because each of the clinical trials used different measurements and data collection methods. With V-safe, the CDC’s vaccination health checker program, researchers will be able to look at all the data and compare the results accurately in the coming months.
You should feel confident getting any of the vaccines because that is the key to ending this pandemic, getting all our lives back to normal and getting our local economy back on track.
How much will the vaccine cost?
Do the COVID-19 vaccines protect against the COVID-19 variants?
Early research suggests that all three vaccines can provide protection against the COVID-19 variants identified in the U.K. and South Africa. Vaccine manufacturers are also looking into creating booster shots to improve protection against these and other variants.
How do I get my vaccine counted as part of Michigan’s data if I was vaccinated in another state?
Receiving the Vaccine
What should I know about booster shots? Am I eligible?
How many shots am I going to need?
The Johnson & Johnson vaccine is a single dose.
Since it takes time for your body to build protection after any vaccination, the COVID-19 vaccines may not fully protect you until two weeks after your final shot.
What is the longest amount of time you can wait for your second shot?
Is a booster the same as a “third dose” of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine?
Immunocompromised individuals have a medical condition or are on a medication that limits the strength of their immune systems, therefore, they may not receive the same level of protection from a regular course of vaccination.
People who are immunocompromised may receive a third dose of either the Moderna or the Pfizer vaccine as soon as 28 days after the second dose. There is no additional dose of the Johnson and Johnson vaccine currently recommended. More information on who is eligible for a third dose can be found here.
Again, the third dose should not be confused with a booster. A vaccine booster is an additional shot that is given to previously vaccinated people as the immunity provided by the original vaccine has started to decrease over time. A booster is given to help maintain a high level of immunity in the future.
If a vaccine needs two doses, can you switch to another vaccine/manufacturer for the second one?
No. Experts advise staying with the same vaccine for both. That’s true even for the Moderna and Pfizer vaccines, which use the same general approach yet are different.
Can the COVID-19 vaccine be administered with other vaccines?
Should I take Tylenol or Motrin before my vaccination?
Taking over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen and ibuprofen before receiving a vaccine may reduce its ability to work and decrease the immune response to the vaccine. After the vaccination, do not hesitate to take an over-the-counter medication if you have symptoms that make you uncomfortable.
Can I get the vaccine if I've had COVID-19?
Can I get the vaccine if I’ve had convalescent plasma or monoclonal antibody treatment for COVID-19?
Can the COVID-19 vaccines be used in accordance with Catholic values?
The Vatican confirmed that getting vaccinated and keeping the public safe is more important than the distant concerns about the use of tainted cell lines. The Catholic Health Association supported this position.
It is important to know that many of the COVID-19 vaccines approved for emergency use authorization in the United States did not directly use tainted cell lines in development. For more information on the use of cell lines, read this fact sheet from the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services.
Can I get the COVID-19 vaccine during Ramadan?
Vaccine for Children and Teens
Is it a problem for my child to receive the COVID-19 vaccine at the same time as other vaccines?
What kind of side effects should I worry about after my child gets the vaccine?
Any vaccine can cause side effects. These are usually minor (for example, a sore arm or low-grade fever) and go away within a few days. The COVID-19 vaccine is no different. If your child has any of the following after getting their vaccine, however, you should call or visit a doctor:
- Breathing fast or having trouble breathing
- Chest Pain
- A fast or irregular heartbeat
- A high fever with spasms or jerky movements (seizures)
- A swollen tongue or throat
- A rash or hives on their body
What’s the difference between the two vaccines for kids under 5 years old?
Will the COVID-19 vaccine affect my child if they have diabetes or sickle cell disease?
My child is 4 years old. Should I wait until they are 5 to get vaccinated with the vaccine for 5-11 year old’s?
Effectiveness and Safety
Are the COVID-19 vaccines safe?
Like other medications, the COVID-19 vaccines can have some side effects, but symptoms experienced by trial participants were mild or moderate and were attributable to a normal, healthy immune response. The most commonly reported side effects of the vaccine were chills, fatigue, muscle or joint pain, nausea, pain, redness or swelling at the injection site, and headache.
Are the COVID-19 vaccines effective?
Efficacy was consistent across age (12+), gender, race, and ethnicity demographics. Only the Pfizer vaccine has been widely tested in children and adolescents ages 12 – 16.
Can children be vaccinated?
Can pregnant women be vaccinated?
Yes, pregnant women can receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Some vaccinations, like the COVID-19 vaccine and Tdap vaccines provide protection for both the pregnant woman and the newborn baby through antibodies from the mom to the baby.
The New England Journal of Medicine recently published preliminary findings from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) scientists that determined the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines do not appear to pose any serious risk during pregnancy. In fact, the study found no increase in risks of complications, premature delivery, miscarriage, or other issues among women who got the shot even among those who received the vaccine during their third trimester. The study did not look at Johnson & Johnson’s one-shot vaccine, which became available after the start of the study.
Pregnant women face a higher risk of severe illness and death from COVID-19 than non-pregnant women, making vaccination especially important to this demographic. If you have questions about the risks and benefits of the vaccine, please talk with your physician.
Why was I told to wait a month after getting the vaccine before getting a mammogram?
Will I need to get a COVID-19 vaccine every year?
Will I need to continue to wear a mask and distance after I receive 2 doses of the vaccine?
You might choose to wear a mask regardless of the level of transmission if you have a weakened immune system or if, because of your age or an underlying medical condition, you are at increased risk for severe disease, or if a member of your household has a weakened immune system, is at increased risk for severe disease, or is unvaccinated.